E2 = m2 c4 + p2 c2 where p = momentum of the particle; cancelling down gives E = ± mc2. - mc2 is the negative energy state. With a suitable input of energy, the particle can obtain a positive energy state.
For a light particle which has no mass the equation cancels to E2 = p2 c2.
Planck's constant: E = hv, where v is frequency of the wavelength, and h is constant at 6.55 x 10 -27 erg seconds, or units of actions. Combining E = hv with p = hv / c and L = c / v gives pL = h, where L (lambda) is wavelength, is multiplied by momentum. The smaller the wavelength, the greater the momentum.
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While every effort is taken to ensure accuracy, errors may occur. We recommend interested visitors consult good university - level texts, such as 'University Physics' - H Young and R Freedman (9th ed. Addison Wesley, ISBN 0-201-31132-1), or others.